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Effect on human’s upper extremities, back and neck caused by handheld devices

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A smartphone or handheld device (HHD) combines advanced computing capability, such as

internet communication, information retrieval, video, e-commerce and other features, that make

device highly popular among people. According to Pew research center, the number of

smartphone owners comprises 56 % of American adults in 2013 and their average daily use of the

device is about 195 minutes. The number of cellphone users increases every year. Various studies

show the connection between cell phone usage and physical state of the users’ health. Some

studies report that users complain about a headache, hand tremor and finger discomfort.

In his research, Berolo noted that mobile hand-held device users complain of discomfort at least

on one area of upper extremities, back or neck. Long-term usage of the device leads to additional

tension on tendons, muscles, and perimetric tissue, which could result in visual display terminal

(VDT) syndrome. In the similar studies on working with desktop, the scientists recommend regular

rest periods, stretching, and exercises.

In research conducted by a group of Korean scientists from Injr University an effect of cell phone

on hand-held device users was “a significant association between the total times spent using a


mobile device each day and pain in the right shoulder, and between times spent internet browsing

and pain at the base of the right thumb.” NYU

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